Can someone explain the Kreb's cycle or Lymphatic system?

Can someone explain the Kreb's cycle or Lymphatic system? Topic: Can someone explain the Kreb's cycle or Lymphatic system?
September 20, 2019 / By Christabella
Question: I am a A&P II student and I could use some more information or if someone could break it down and present in a more clear way I would be greatful! The Lymphatic system i am looking for some help understanding the difference between T cells and B cells and all the other like NK cells.
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Best Answers: Can someone explain the Kreb's cycle or Lymphatic system?

Aundria Aundria | 10 days ago
OK Honey, Here is an explanation of the Kreb's Cycle. Now remember that in the previous step of Cellular Respiration, two molecules of PYRUVATE were formed. (Pyruvate is also known as Pyruvic Acid). The Krebs Cycle is the next step in Glucose metabolism. It is an eight - step process, with each step catalyzed by a specific enzyme. It is a cyclic process because OXALOACETATE, the product in step 8, is the reactant in Step 1. You can break down the Krebs Cycle into TWO portions: 1). Pyruvate Oxidation 2). Krebs Cycle ______________________________________... ______________________________________... 1). Pyruvate Oxidation: The two pyruvate molecules that were formed in Glycolysis are transported through the two mitochondrial membranes into the matrix. Now; a). A low energy carboxyl group (COO-) is removed as carbon di oxide. This is a decarboxylation reaction which is catalyzed by the enzyme Pyruvate Decarboxylase. b). the remaining two - carbon portion is oxidised by NAD+ In the process, NAD+ gains two hydrogen atoms (2 e- and 2p+), and the remaining two - carbon compound becomes an acetate group. This reaction transfers potential energy to NAD+ c). A sulfur - containing compound called coenzyme A (CoA) is attached to the acetate component, forming acetyl - CoA. The overall reaction of this step is: 2 pyruvate + 2(NAD+) + 2CoA >>> 2acetyl - CoA + 2NADH + 2(H+) + 2 CO2 Note: The two molecules of NADH produced here proceed to the electron transport chains to produce ATP by chemiosmosis. The two H+ ions produced remain dissolved in the matrix. 2). Krebs Cycle: Step1: The acetyl group of acetyl - CoA condenses with Oxaloacetate to form Citrate. Step 2: Citrate is rearranged to Isocitrate. This is an isomerization reaction that is catalyzed by an isomerase. Step 3). Isocitrate is converted to (alpha) - keto glutarate. One carbon atom is lost as CO2. NAD+ is reduced to NADH. Step 4). (alpha) - keto glutarate is converted to Succinyl - CoA. Again, a Carbon atom leaves as CO2, and NAD+ is reduced to NADH. Step 5). Succinyl - CoA is converted to Succinate. In this step, ATP is formed by Substrate - level phosphorylation. A phosphate group from the matrix displaces CoA from Succinyl - CoA. The phosphate group is then transferred to Guanosine di phosphate (GDP), forming Guanosine tri phosphate (GTP). Next, the phosphate group condenses with ADP, forming ATP. Step 6). Succinate is converted to Fumarate. 2 H atoms reduce FAD to FADH2. Step 7). Fumarate is converted to Malate with the addition of a water molecule. Step 8). Malate is converted to Oxaloacetate. Two H atoms reduce NAD+ to NADH. This Oxaloacetate is further used in Step 1, forming a CYCLE. This is the overall reaction of the Kreb's Cycle >>> oxaloacetate + acetyl - CoA + ADP + Pi + (3NAD+) + FAD >>> CoA + ATP + 3NADH + 3(H+) + FADH2 + 2CO2 + oxaloacetate. Note: By the end of the Krebs Cycle, the original Glucose molecule is entirely consumed. The 6 carbon atoms leave as 6 low energy CO2 molecules. ______________________________________... This is the simplest possible explanation of the Kreb's Cycle. You can also refer to the following links if you like(the second one provides a nice interactive animation of the entire process): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citric_acid_cycle http://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/Bio231/krebs.html ______________________________________... Now, coming to the Lymphatic System. As you specifically asked the difference between T cells and B cells, I would like to start with a very basic explanation: Two different types of lymphocytes are found in the immune system. They are T cells and B cells. 1). T cells are produced in the bone marrow and are stored in the Thymus gland. The T cells mission is to seek out the intruder and signal the immune attack. Acting much like a sentry, some T cells identify the invader by it's antigen markers, which are located in the cell membrane. ONCE THE ANTIGEN IS IDENTIFIED, ANOTHER T CELL PASSES THIS INFORMATION TO THE B CELL. WHEREAS 2). B cells multiply and produce chemical weapons; the antiodies. Each B cell produces a single type of antibody, which is displayed along the cell membrane. Eventually, the B cells differentiate into super - antibody - producing cells called plasma cells. These plasma cells can produce as many as 2000 antibody molecules every second. Hope this helps. GOOD LUCK with your exams. God Bless
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Aundria Originally Answered: How do evolutionists explain the existence of the immune system?
So you're asking, according to the theory of evolution, who intelligently designed the immune system... ... It's just... This is really difficult to respond to. There *are* stupid questions. See above. Bringing the immune system, or anything at all, into your argument doesn't make it any better, because all you're doing is pointed at a biological system and insisting it must have been designed and offering no justification for why that must be. How, exactly, the first genes appeared remains a mystery. After that point, however, it's all really very simple. The first immune globulin would only have had immune function as a secondary. It would have initially been selected because of some other activity. It probably evolved slightly increased immune activity from there with a minimal impact on it's "primary function." After that a gene duplication would have allowed it to evolve towards immune function and whatever primary function it had independently. Happens all the time, plenty of digestive enzymes used to all be the same one enzyme, you can trace their evolutionary tree back almost as if they were independent organisms.
Aundria Originally Answered: How do evolutionists explain the existence of the immune system?
There's no such thing as "evolutionists". are you a gravitationist? Posting a science question in the religion and spirituality section often means the asker does not really want an answer. His goal is to ask a question that he believes proves some scientific knowledge to be wrong, or that science does not yet answer, and make the implicit claim that the only other explanation is a god, and specifically, the same god he happens to believe in. It's the "god of the gaps" - intellectually bankrupt, since it favors ignorance instead of knowledge, and because of the contained logical fallacy - and it's done almost exclusively by christians. However, on the off chance that you really want to know the answer: Claim CB200.4: The human immune system is irreducibly complex, indicating that it must have been designed. Response: 1. The complement system of the human immune system is not irreducibly complex. Urochordates have a functional complement system, yet they lack a component of the cascade. 2. Common mechanisms, such as gene duplication and co-option of molecules with other roles, allow the immune system to evolve naturally. Much has been written on the subject. (Kasahara et al. 1997; Lindsay 1999; Travis 1998) 3. Behe gets some of the basic biology wrong. Bacteria are not destroyed, as Behe says (1996, 134), by water rushing in when the cell membrane is punctured, but because their chemical gradients have been destroyed (Ussery 1999). 4. Irreducible complexity is not an obstacle to evolution and doesn't imply design.

Abbigail Abbigail
The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration. In aerobic organisms, the citric acid cycle is part of a metabolic pathway involved in the chemical conversion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and water to generate a form of usable energy. It is the second of three metabolic pathways that are involved in fuel molecule catabolism and ATP production, the other two being glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. The citric acid cycle also provides precursors for many compounds such as certain amino acids, and some of its reactions are therefore important even in cells performing fermentation.
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Stan Stan
Lymphatic system- macrophages attack a pathogen and place the antigens on its surface, making it an antigen-presenting cell (APC). T cells react with a certain part of the antigen on the surface of the APC, and coordinate the growth of Memory B cells, B cells, and cytotoxic (killer) T cells. B cells produce antibodies to bind to pathogens of the certain antigen in order for later macrophage endocytosis. Memory B cells "remember" the antigen for prevention of future infections from a particular pathogen. Cytotoxic T cells attack pathogens containing the specific antigen directly by binding to the pathogen's surface and injecting perforin, resulting in cell lysis. Pheww..
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Stan Originally Answered: can anyone explain this so well. 1st to explain clearly BEST ANSWER.?
In his poem The Bard, Thomas Gray tells the story of how the English king Edward I, during the conquest of Wales, was met by a druid (ancient Welsh Oak-priest and poet) who prophesies that the English royal line will suffer for their mistreatment of Wales, and that England will only have peace again when its throne is finally given to a Welsh prince (Henry VII). In this verse the bard prophesies the period of the Wars of the Roses, between the murder of Richard II around 1400, to the accession of Richard III (1483). Fill high the sparkling bowl, The rich repast prepare; Reft of a crown, he yet may share the feast: (Richard II - the legitimate king - was deposed and starved to death by his cousin Henry IV around 1400. The Bard says that Richard deserves our honour - as a rightful king - even though he was deposed and assassinated). Close by the regal chair Fell Thirst and Famine scowl A baleful smile upon their baffled guest. (Reference to the tradition that Richard was starved to death). Heard ye the din of battle bray, Lance to lance, and horse to horse? Long years of havoc urge their destined course, (The murder of the legitimate king - Richard - led to generations of civil war, as the houses of Lancaster and York murdered each other for the right to the throne). And thro' the kindred squadrons mow their way. (The squadrons of cavalry are going through the 'kindred' because it is a civil war: brother is murdering brother). Ye Towers of Julius, London's lasting shame, With many a foul and midnight murder fed, (There is a tradition that the Tower of London was originally built by Julius Caesar. The bard prophesies some of the murders which will take place there during the war - Duke of Clarence, brother to Edward IV; Edward V, son to Edward V (Both House of York); Henry VI (House of Lancaster)) Revere his consort's faith, his father's fame, And spare the meek usurper's holy head. (Gray is saying that even though Henry VI was not a legitimate king, he should be respected because his father - Henry V - was a great ruler, and his wife - Margaret of Anjou - was unusually loyal to him. Henry VI himself also had a reputation as a very saintly person - though he was a weak and incompetent ruler). Above, below, the rose of snow, Twined with her blushing foe, we spread: (the badge of the House of York was a white rose, a red rose stood for the House of Lancaster. The bard compares mixing the two colours to blood on snow - a powerful image in British history - especially after the Battle of Towton). The bristled boar in infant-gore Wallows beneath the thorny shade. (The last 'English' king was Richard III - whose badge was a boar's head. The bard prophesies that he will be a child-killer - he probably killed the sons of his elder brother Edward IV, on his way to the crown of England). Now, brothers, bending o'er th' accursed loom Stamp we our vengeance deep, and ratify his doom. (The bard says that the Welsh are putting a curse on the English, which will lead to Richard III's death, and his replacement by a Welsh prince). .... You need to know a great deal of English medieval history to make sense of these lines. That is the point of them: Gray's poetry is full of specialist knowledge, and semi-private references. it is poetry for a coterie, a group of people who share the same prejudices and expectations of history.

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