Originally Answered: My Grandmother Has a rare disease.?
The first disease sounds like something called Pemphigus.
Pemphigus is a group of rare autoimmune diseases that cause blistering of the skin and mucous membranes (mouth, nose, throat, eyes, and genitals). Some forms of the disease, including the most common form, may be fatal if left untreated.
What Causes Pemphigus?
Normally, our immune system produces antibodies that attack viruses and harmful bacteria to keep us healthy. In people with pemphigus, however, the immune system mistakenly attacks the cells in the epidermis, or top layer of the skin, and the mucous membranes. The immune system produces antibodies against proteins in the skin known as desmogleins. These proteins form the glue that keeps skin cells attached to keep the skin intact. When desmogleins are attacked, skin cells separate from each other and fluid can collect between the layers of skin, forming blisters that do not heal. In some cases, these blisters can cover a large area of skin.
It is unclear what triggers the disease, although it appears that some people have a genetic susceptibility. Environmental agents may trigger the development of pemphigus in people who are likely to be affected by the disease because of their genes. In rare cases, it may be triggered by certain medications. In those cases, the disease usually goes away when the medication is stopped.
Is Pemphigus Contagious?
Pemphigus is not contagious. It does not spread from person to person.
Is Pemphigus Hereditary?
Though there can be a genetic predisposition to develop pemphigus, there is no indication the disease is hereditary.
Who Gets Pemphigus?
Pemphigus affects people across racial and cultural lines. Research has shown that certain ethnic groups (such as the eastern European Jewish community and people of Mediterranean descent) are more susceptible to pemphigus. A particular type of pemphigus occurs more frequently in people who live in the rain forests of Brazil.
Men and women are equally affected. Research studies suggest a genetic predisposition to the disease. Although the onset usually occurs in middle-aged and older adults, all forms of the disease may occur in young adults and children.
What Are the Different Types of Pemphigus?
There are several types of pemphigus and other similar blistering disorders. The type of disease depends on what level in the skin the blisters form and where they are located on the body. Blisters always occur on or near the surface of the skin, which is called the epidermis. People with pemphigus vulgaris, for example, have blisters that occur within the lower layer of the epidermis, while people with pemphigus foliaceus have blisters that form in the topmost layer. The type of antibody that is attacking the skin cells may also define the type of disease present.
To find more, do a SEARCH on Google or elsewhere on your computer for PEMPHIGUS FACT SHEET. You could do the same for GRAVES DISEASE FACT SHEET.