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What is the difference between T-cells, antibodies and macrophages?

What is the difference between T-cells, antibodies and macrophages? Topic: What is the difference between T-cells, antibodies and macrophages?
January 18, 2020 / By Kay
Question: I know these are parts of our immune system but I do not know how they work together and I am not clear about their functions
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Best Answers: What is the difference between T-cells, antibodies and macrophages?

Holly Holly | 2 days ago
T cells belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and NK cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called the T cell receptor (TCR). The abbreviation T, in T cell, stands for thymus, since it is the principal organ in the T cell's development. Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins) are proteins that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses. They are typically made of basic structural units - each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains - to form, for example, monomers with one unit, dimers with two units or pentamers with five units. Antibodies are produced by a kind of white blood cell called a B cell. There are several different types of antibody heavy chain, and several different kinds of antibodies, which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess. Five different antibody isotypes are known in mammals, which perform different roles, and help direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter. Although the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures to exist. This region is known as the hypervariable region. Each of these variants can bind to a different target, known as an antigen. This huge diversity of antibodies allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide diversity of antigens. The unique part of the antigen recognized by an antibody is called an epitope. These epitopes bind with their antibody in a highly specific interaction, called induced fit, that allows antibodies to identify and bind only their unique antigen in the midst of the millions of different molecules that make up an organism. Recognition of an antigen by an antibody tags it for attack by other parts of the immune system. Antibodies can also neutralize targets directly by, for example, binding to a part of a pathogen that it needs to cause an infection. The large and diverse population of antibodies is generated by random combinations of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. Antibody genes also re-organize in a process called class switching that changes the base of the heavy chain to another, creating a different isotype of the antibody that retains the antigen specific variable region. This allows a single antibody to be used by several different parts of the immune system. Production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system. Macrophages (Greek: "big eaters", from makros "large" + phagein "eat") are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. Monocytes and macrophages are phagocytes, acting in both non-specific defense (or innate immunity) as well as specific defence (or cell-mediated immunity) of vertebrate animals. Their role is to phagocytose (engulf and then digest) cellular debris and pathogens either as stationary or mobile cells, and to stimulate lymphocytes and other immune cells to respond to the pathogen.
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Holly Originally Answered: Is it bad to have thyroid antibodies--should I take medicine for it?
You apparently have Hashimoto's Autoimmune Thyroiditis (main cause for eventual Hypothyroidism) which will cause TSH to fluctuate & often appear normal though thyroid is far from it. Yes, you need Synthroid & Cytomel!!! The longer you wait, the more irreversible damage. More info & good links: TSH ‘norm’ should be .3 – 3 (w/ most feeling best at < 2) but, for diagnosis, may not mean much if ANTIBODIES are present which is indicative of Hashimoto’s Autoimmune Thyroiditis (cycles between HYPER & HYPO at start)…it is the main cause of eventual HypOthyroidism but worse (...OR Graves Disease – HypERthyroid from beginning). You will have to INSIST they test for the antibodies. They can code so that ins will pay. WARNING: Doctors seem not to want to find/treat thyroid disease. You may have to go to more than one doctor before you get the right tests, interpretation, and treatment. Best wishes. Ck these: http://thyroid.about.com/bio/Mary-Shomon... http://www.stopthethyroidmadness.com/ http://www.thyrophoenix.com/index.html http://thyroid.about.com/cs/newsinfo/l/blguidelines.htm ALWAYS GET COPIES OF YOUR LABS. God bless you
Holly Originally Answered: Is it bad to have thyroid antibodies--should I take medicine for it?
Having thyroid antibodies means that you have something called 'Hashimotos'. You do not have to take thyroid medication for it, unless your TSH levels are abnormal, and your doctor instructs you to take something. Synthroid is a very powerful medication, so do not take it if your doctor has told you not to take it. Eventually, the antibodies will destroy you thyroid gland, and you will have to take something... but this can take a very very long time. Just find out from your doctor how often you should have your TSH levels checked.

Edana Edana
This Site Might Help You. RE: What is the difference between T-cells, antibodies and macrophages? I know these are parts of our immune system but I do not know how they work together and I am not clear about their functions
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Chantel Chantel
in simple words... T-cells play important role in cell mediated immune response while antibodis are responsible for humoral immune response.. macrophages causes phagocytosis of the foreign particle...
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Chantel Originally Answered: What do white blood cells do?
White blood cell is the general term for any cell of the immune system. They can also be called leukocytes. There are two general divisions of white blood cells, the myeloid and the lymphoid. Myeloid cells (which includes macrophages and dendritic cells) are cells that can respond basically to any foreign material and produce a rapid immune response. The lymphoid cells (which include B cells and T cells), produce a much more potent immune response but are activated only once myeloid cells have been activated. This response is called the adaptive immune response and the time it takes to activate it is the reason why certain infections take about a week to clear up. Generally, all white blood cells can be found to a certain extent in the blood, and thus the heart. However, each cells has a preferred tissue (kind of like a home base). All white blood cells originate in the bone marrow and then migrate to their preferred location, while circulating through the blood stream now and then. When encountering a pathogen, most myeloid cells can kill by engulfing the pathogen and containing it inside a specialized compartment inside the cell. The cell then injects a lot of different toxic molecules into the compartment which destroy the pathogen. If the infection is pretty bad and the adaptive lymphoid cells become involved, they can kill pathogens by either poking holes in their cell membranes (basically causing them to explode) or attacking them with antibodies which acts to painting a bulls eye on the pathogen which other cells will attack. Pathogens can be any sort of foreign material: bacteria, viruses, fungus, allergens, or debris. Certain infectious diseases can cause diarrhea. However, in almost all cases, this is not a result of the white cells, but the pathogen itself. Cholera for example, causes the cells of the intestine to pump water into the intestine causing massive diarrhea. However, the immune system can be linked to certain types of gastric problems. In certain gut infections, the immune response may be over responsive and will end up destroying some of the body tissue as well. If any infection is associated with bloody stool, that is the reason why. Hope this is helpful!

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